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Valkyrja programming language


SyMAL CAS (Symbolic Math Array Language)


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Állánë constructed language (Állánë álya)


Ugushian constructed language (Ùgùcskò mòwa / Ўугўушко мова)


Aliose constructed language (Aliose ingua)


Denáth constructed language


Denáth | constructed language

Denáth constructed language

Es Denáth ináith iDanhás.

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Phonology

a - /æ/
á - /ɑː/
â - /ɑ̃/
b - /b/
c - /k/
ch - /χ/
d - /d/
dh - /ð/
e - /ɛ/
é - /eː/
ê - /ɛ̃/
f - /f/
fh - /ɸ/
g - /g/
gh - /ɣ/
h - /h/
i - /ɪ~j/
í - /ɪː/
î - /ĩ/
l - /l/
lh - /ɬ/
m - /m/
n - /n/
nh - /ŋ̊/
o - /ɒ/
ó - /ə/
ô - /ɔ̃/
oe - /œ/
p - /p/
r - /r/
rh - /ɾ̥/
s - /s~z/
sh - /ʃ/
t - /t/
th - /θ/
u - /ʊ/
ú - /uː/
û - /ũ/
v - /β/
w - /w/
Diphtongs: au, ai, ei, oi, ui.
Emphasis is always on the penultimate syllable.
Mutations:
p -> b;
t -> d;
c -> g;
b -> v;
d -> dh;
f -> fh;
g -> gh;
m -> w;
n -> nh;
l -> lh;
r -> rh;
sC -> Ø;
sV -> shV;
gw -> chw;
V -> hV;
Vn -> chV;
Vl -> chV.

Vowel harmony:
a -> e;
é -> i;
i -> é;
e -> ê;
o -> á;
á -> o;
u -> ú;
ú -> û;
Collisions:
V-V -> V-hV;
V-Vn -> V-chV;
V-Vl -> V-chV;
C-C -> C-iC.
Verb finals: l, b, r, n, s, o*, i*;
Noun finals: C, e*, u*, á,;
Adjective finals: C, a*, i*.
dhV + s.. -> s;
thV + s.. -> s;
sV + dhV -> dhV;
sV + thV -> thV;
VC + V -> VCV;
VCo* + V -> VCV;
VCV + V -> VCVV;
VC(VC)+V + V -> ..VCV.

Samples

Léná it fhanét iále wá nése co chán hifhamún.
/leːnɑː ɪt ɸɑneːt jɑːlɛ wɑː neːsɛ kɒ χɑːn hɪɸɑmuːn/
Léná it [f]anét iál-e wá nés-e co [ch]án [h]ifh-amún.
Lena DEF window open-PST CONJ close-PST EMP DEM.DIST TEMP-time

Lena opened the window, but closed it again at once.

í melá íw hadhétiná.
/ɪː mɛlɑː ɪːw hæðeːtɪnɑː/
í mel-á íw [h]adh[é]-tiná
1S go-PRS.PROG REFL.POS LAT-house

I am going to my home.

í côle a mó chéwáth gwáprela pâ wánó
/ɪː kɔ̃lɛ æ mə χeːwɑːθ ɡʷɑːprɛlɑ pɑ̃ wɑːnə/
í côl-e a mó [ch]éwáth gwáprel-a pâ [m]án-ó
1S believe-PST SR 1S.POS uncle cook-PRS very good-ADV

I thought that my uncle cooked very well.

sú éno et gále ós hon na chénoe
/suː eːnɒ ɛt gɑːlɛ əz hɒn næ χeːnœ/
sú éno et [c]ál-e ós [h]on na [ch]éno-e
3P win yet can-PST PERF but NEG win-PST

They still could have won, but they didn't.

í Dhoé gwéle osúiw pá ché íw vad rá chwrélá
/ɪː ðɒeː ɡʷeːlɛ ɒsuːjw pɑː χeː ɪːw βæd rɑː χʷreːlɑː/
í Dhoé gwél-e osúiw pá [ch]é íw [b]ad rá [gw]rél-á
1S Joe see-PST «last time» when 3S REFL.POS boat PST make-PRS.PROG

When I saw Joe earlier, he was building his boat.

Vocabulary

ámo - to love;
gní - to know;
gwó - to do;
côlí - to believe;
gwrél - to make / create;
gwél - to see;
lávar - to speak;
brís - to break;
ró - to give;
gwáprél - to cook;
inél - to say / tell;
prín - to buy;
mel - to go;
úrô - to find;
cál - to be able;
dír - to get back (something) / return;
éno - to win;
clâbó - to be sick;
gwíro - to hear;
réthi - to run;
gófo - to care;
ghéb - to become;
car - to carry;
gáil - to want / wish;
riwól - to rule / control;
iál - to open;
nés - to close;
bad - a boat;
cun - a dog;
lé - a place;
lír - a book;
tiná - a house / home;
gwén - a human / person;
ináith - a language / speech;
ové - a sheep;
calón - a heart;
ép - a horse;
fanét - a window;
éwáth - an uncle;
gwâl - a wool;
cerb - a wagon;
lwith - a load;
amún - a moment / time;
gwápu - a food;
náthá - a snake;
méná - a sign;
anér - down / a bottom;
dúnáthá - a poisonous snake;
clâ - sick;
trís - heavy;
ôlh - big / great;
célf - fast;
nówi - new;
mán - good;
pólh - hot;
slán - health;
dúli - poisonous;
osúiw - last time / previously;
na - negation / not (prefix);
o - yes/no interrogation (prefix);
mé - if (prefix);
et - yet (prefix);
rhí - too (prefix);
pá - when;
-(ch)ac - and;
wá - and (sentence separator);
on - but;
pâ - very;
rhái - please;
né - a lot of (countable items);
ethné - much/many (non-countable items);
ái - hortative particle;
co - emphasis particle;
a - clauses subordination / in order to / to
it - definitive article;

to be
Infinitive: bis;
Progressive: esi;
Past progressive: bá chós;
Present tense: es;
Perfect: ethí;
Past perfect: bú chós;
Future perfect: bí chós;
Conditional perfect: gwá wi;
Past tense: bú;
Future tense: bí;
Gerundive: bisé;
Participle form: búi;
Passive participle form: muí;
Conditional mood: mi.

Note: «to be»-verb follows the VSO word order.

to have
1S: íes;
2S: ties;
2S.F: túes;
3S: éches;
3S.F: úes;
1P: nies;
2P: íses;
3P: súes.

Grammar

Word order: Poss Adj Prep S O V IntO Adv,
or OSV for interrogation.

Pronouns

pé - what;
cé - who;
mái - where;
in - this;
án - that;
od - yon;
ei - it;
ích - here;
súi - reflexive;
íw - reflexive possessive;
mó - 1S possessive;
tó - 2S possessive;
ó - 3S possessive;
nó - 1P possessive;
vó - 2P possessive;
só - 3P possessive;
í / chí - 1S;
ti - 2S;
tú - 2S.F;
é / ché - 3S;
ú / chú - 3S.F;
ni - 1P;
ís / chís - 2P;
sú - 3P.

Prepositions / cases

adh(V)- - to / toward (LAT);
en(V)- - in / at (LOC);
án(V)- - inside;
ap(V)- - from (ABL);
er(V)- - around;
ré(ch)- - before;
tar(V)- - by / using;
i(ch)- - of (genetive);
can(V)- - with;
álh(V)- - without;
u(ch)- - to / for (dative);
ifh(V)- - at / in (TEMP).

Verbs

Infinitive: -Ø;
Progressive tense: -á;
Past progressive: rá + -á;
Present tense: -a;
Perfect: -thí;
Past perfect: -e + ós;
Future perfect: -sí + ós;
Conditional perfect: rá + -u;
Past tense: -e;
Future tense: -sí;
Gerundive: -é;
Passive form: -s;
Participle form: -úi;
Passive participle form: -dhí;
Impersonal form: -ig-;
Imperative form: -û;
Conditional mood: -u.

Nouns

Plural

C -> í;
e* -> a;
á -> ê.

Adjectives

Plural

C -> -ói;
a* -> e;
i* -> u.

Adverb

C -> -ó;
V -> -w.