Phonology & orthography

a - /ɑ/
ae - /æ/
e - /e/
ea - /eă/
i - /i/, /j/ after vowels, /ɪ/ at the end of a word
o - /ɔ~ɒ~ə/
u - /u/
p - /pʰ/
pp - /pʰː/
t - /ʈʰ/
tt - /tʰː/
nt - /nt/
l - /l/, /lʲ/ before [v]
ll - /lː/
ly - /ʎ/
ty - /c/
hy - /ç/
y - /j~ʲ/, /ʲ/ after [v]
lh/hl - /ɬ/
n - /n/
nn - /nː/
ng - /ŋ/
ny - /ɲ/
h - /x/
v - /v/
f - /ɸ/
w - /ʍ/
m - /m/
r - /r/
s - /s/, /z/ at the end of a word
ss - /sː/
k/c - /kʰ/, written as [c] near consonant or at the beginning of a word
kk/cc - /kʰː/
þ - /θ/
ð - /ð/
q - /kʷ/
ts - /t͡s/
ya/ia - /ja/, but /ia/ after consonant
ye - /e/
yo - /ø/
yu/iu - /ju~ʊ/
Initials: vowels + t, l, ly, n, ny, p, m, c/k, lh/hl, þ, s, hy, h, f, v, w, q, ty, r
Finals: vowels + s, r, n, l, t, nt
Permitted: rq, lty, nty, rty, hty, ft, sty, sq, lq, nq, kt, nw, lw, rw, tw, pt
[e] becomes short at end of the word after consonant.
Acute accent denotes long vowels, dieresis denotes short.
Circumflex denotes upstep of tone (/ꜛ/).

Stress rules

S - syllable, Sl - syllable with a long vowel, St - syllable with a tonal vowel, 'S - stressed syllable.

'S
'SS
S'SS
SS'SlS
SlS'Sl
'StSlS

Allama writing system (Álláni)


Samples

alvia êmeinalë - I have a cat.
alvia emen êhályein - I don't have a cat. (Formal register)
alvia nêmeinalë - I don't have a cat.
elessë êtta - I'm going home.
atius rêilenasan telaten énë - They two have written a letter to their friends.
á âpeleinan! - Don't do it!
âpelien purin - Do it good.
wâtólmestein Állámanan? - Do you speak Allane?
acló têtorso rûcarasan atel Þu Tan as ûstos ia aclol ciryan tulen - Zhu Dan shot the king's shoulder, but the king was still able to lead his army.
síra âquaþein? - What is your name? (lit. You named as what?)
ôisunca - It's raining.
ír elental? - Where are their houses?
së nesehó – atálán úma - To be, or not to be. That's question
tyú âyántein? - How are you?
tyú él? - How are you? (common speech variant)
is âilóra elel? - Why is the house running away?
savë! satyurein! êtyuras! - Hello – familiar, formal, more formal
þánákë íssan hyúnittánétyu - I am interested in your opinion.

centelesë êilcunein ruinelas e fallesë ettelútinan túlcátinanea, quéssá þélonea têisinanar, êiþáritullein quanin.
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
il âituleinar Elályal Íha,
il âimemeinar Elályal Íha,
sóvé âinélheinar Elályal Íha,
âisálcáleinarea Málallë.
One Ring to rule them all,
One Ring to find them,
One Ring to bring them all
And in the Darkness bind them.

íkuqual sûlmas tullon,
êlindein Cioto mélassë,
amár éa í Cioto mélallë.
京にても京なつかしやほととぎす
(a hokku by Matsuo Bashō)


Vocabulary


Grammar

Word order: SubordinateClause Conjunction Syntactic CaseModifier QuestionPronoun Object ChainedVerb IndirectObject Verb Adverb Subject Adjective PossesivePronoun Preposition
Note: some suffixes may be reversed in order to avoid vowel/vowel or consonant/consonant collisions (e.g. -esan- -> -nase-, -éruin- -> -nuiré-, -intel- -> -lenti-).
Also the suffixes that don't consist from a single vowel can «eat» the preceding vowel, otherwise [w] is appended to avoid the collision.

Suffixes

-s- - BE-verb
-t- - EXIST-verb
-llét- - BE.LOC-verb
-(á)ttán- - DEF
-ellánt- - iterative aspect
-itull- - jussive
shá(ly)- - already
-esan- - probably ...
-ehyár- - Opinion mood: to have an opinion that ...
-úss- - Uncertain mood: to don't be sure that ...
-ályél- - Sudden mood: suddenly ...
-ontál- - Potential mood: maybe ...
-úllúr- - Happy mood: to be happy to ...
-asal- - to let/allow to ...
-intel- - to want to ...
-ilént- - to have to ...
-ály- - to should have to ...
-est- - to be able to ...
-esér- - to know how to do ...
-ittél- - to «shall» ...; to «must» ...
-átten- - -ism
-éruin- - -er (person)
-ályít- - to get something to ...; to force something to ...; to make something/somebody to ...
-isás- - DIM (diminutive)
-énás- - un-
-ólyán- - anti-
-áttés- - pro-
-ás- - -ing (repeating action)
-ásses- - -er (tool / instrument)
-ánál- - -land; land of ...
-úntil- - dis-
-úþúnt- - sarcasm marker
-úsus- - un-; undo
-áhyint- - de-; out of ...
-akál- - re-; again ...
any(á)- - very (emphatic particle for descriptives)
-ólhén- - -inary/-imal
-áþál- - plant bearing ...
-áþúhy- - place where ...
-úllúr- - mono-
-irél- - reciprocal voice
-(ny)álë- - descriptivisation
-átte- - nominalizer (doesn't create a new meaning)
-áhyni- - nominalizer (creates a new meaning)
-(hy)álvú- - insult suffix
-(t)áhyá(l)- - despicable/pejorative suffix
-(h)úntú(ly)- - admonitive mood
-(ny)álytú- - -ful (forms a descriptive)
-(ú)nten- - common verbalisation

Common negation prefix is n(e)- (roughly equivalent to non-)
Verbal negation may be expressed by chaining with a «hályen» verb (more formal way) means «to not do».
There're two ways to write answers for the yes/no-questions: by repeating of the verb (more formal/polite way) or via the corresponding words (see the vocabulary).

Conjugation of the irregular verb «to be»

In common speaking the «be»-like verbs could be omitted at all.
Note: subject of the «be»-like verbs is denoted by the absolutive case, but object is denoted by the instrumental case.

Infinitive:

1S
Present/progressive: es
Past: sum
Future: res
Perfect: tu
Conditional: ea
Imperative: esí
Present participle: ris
Past participle: ros
2S
Present/progressive: et
Past: met
Future: ret
Perfect: nar
Conditional: ear
Imperative: esë
Present participle: tis
Past participle: tos
3S/3S.INAN
Present/progressive: em
Past: mes
Future: ren
Perfect: tar
Conditional: rum
Imperative: em
Present participle: nis
Past participle: nos
1P/D
Present/progressive: nar
Past: fes
Future: ron
Perfect: enë
Conditional: eur
Imperative: nar
Present participle: euvis
Past participle: euvos
2P/D
Present/progressive:
Past: emë
Future: fen
Perfect: rom
Conditional: eunë
Imperative:
Present participle: eunis
Past participle: eunos
3P/D
Present/progressive: en
Past: fan
Future: ran
Perfect: ten
Conditional: eun
Imperative: en
Present participle: enis
Past participle: enos


Demonstratives

Proximal: ú/-(a)më
Distal: iú/-(a)në
Proximal.D: énet/-(e)net
Distal.D: iér/-(i)ér
Proximal.P: ié/-(i)élya
Distal.P: iún/-(i)ún


Pronoun

1S+2S: tiri
1S+3S: elyë
2S+3S: nil
1S: í
2S: é
2S.F: ul
2S (polite form): ear
3S: én
3S.F: sá
3S.INAN: lé
1D: ní
2D: tu
2D.F: úr
2D (polite form): ealúr
3D: énë
3D.F: sa
3D.INAN: let
1P: llá
2P: tyé
2P (polite form): eallé
3P: wé
4: tá

all; everybody: il
everything: sóvé
each; every: állya
this: úma; -(l)úmá
that: iúma; -(l)iúmá
this; it (noun): lén
that (noun): lún
these two: énema
those two: iérama
these: iéma
those: iúnama
what: er
who: lír
what/which: síra
where: ír
which one: nyólí
how: tyú
something: misë
somebody; someome: nólva
why: is
there: ámë
here: síva
yon: lúþi
myself: lhí
yourself: ólí
himself: þí
ourselves: ólví
yourselves: ólvarí
themselves: tyárí

Possession

1S: -(é)lyé
2S: -(é)tyu
2S.F: -(á)tái
3S: -(é)nyé
3S.F: -(a)sya
3S.INAN: -(a)lya
1D: -(a)nyat
2D: -(a)tyat
2D.F: -(u)túr
3D: -(a)llat
3D.F: -(a)sa
3D.INAN: -(e)le
1P: -(á)llá
2P: -(é)tyé
3P: -(a)la
Refl.: -(a)n


Adjective

All adjectives end in [a] or [e].
Sg. / Du. / Pl. / Cl.
-/-ië/-i/-së
Super-degree (>): râ-
Sub-degree (<): rû-
Equal-degree (=): vô-
Max-degree: (the ...-est): mô-
Negative max-degree: (the non-...-est): nyê-
Adverb: -in


Noun


Case and number


Declension I (end in vowel)

Sg. / Du. / Pl. / Cl.
Abs. (transitive patient or intrasitive agent) - /-r/-nt/-s
Erg. (transitive agent) - -l/-lar/-lat/-las
Dat. (to/for) - -n/-[e]in/-të/-së
Gen. (of) - the last vowel becomes long, but short if it's already long/-ron/-ton/-tos
Pos. ('s/of) - -(n)i/-(n)ir/-(n)int/-(n)is
Ins. (by/with/using) - -nan/-linan/-tinan/-në
All. (to/in) - -ssë/-nnar/-nnat/-nnas
Abl. (from) - ê- -r/ê- -n/ê- -t/ê- -s
Loc. (at/in) - -llë/-llan/-llet/-lles
Ade/Sup. (on) - â- -r/â- -res/â- -ret/â- -rus
Sup. II (above) - ê- -l/ê- -r/ê- -nt/ê- -s
Sub. (under) - ês-/ês- -r/ês- -t/ês- -s
Ill. (into) - êt-/êt- -r/êt- -t/êt- -s
Ine. (inside) - -lyél/-lyér/-lyét/-lyés
Ela. (from inside of) - êl-/êl- -r/êl- -t/êl- -s
Per. (through/along) - ât-/ât- -r/ât- -t/ât- -s
Pro. (by way of/through) - ât- -nis/ât- -ris/ât- -tis/êl- -s
Cnt. (against) - ît-/ît- -r/ît- -t/ît- -s
Con. (with) - ûs-/ûs- -r/ûs- -t/ûs- -s
Inc. (without) - ôt-/ôt- -r/ôt- -t/ôt- -s
Abi. (in front of) - ôs-/ôs- -r/ôs- -t/ôs- -s
Ben. (to/for) - -ssan/-ssar/-sset/-lis
Sem. (like as/as) - -va/-var/-van/-vier
Tem. (at time) - -llon/-llor/-llont/-llos
Cau. (due/because) - -nna/-livar/-lint/-livas
Voc. (vocation) - îs-/îs- -r/îs- -nt/îs- -s


Declension II (end in consonant)

Sg. / Du. / Pl. / Cl.
Abs. - /-ar/-ant/-as
Erg. - -al/-alar/-alat/-alas
Dat. - -an/-a[e]in/-atë/-asë
Gen. - -ál/-aron/-aton/-atos
Pos. - -i/-ir/-int/-is
Ins. - -anan/-alinan/-atinan/-anë
All. - -assë/-annar/-annat/-annas
Abl. - ê- -ar/ê- -an/ê- -at/ê- -as
Loc. - -allë/-allan/-allet/-alles
Ade/Sup. - â- -ar/â- -ares/â- -aret/â- -arus
Sup. II - ê- -al/ê- -ar/ê- -ant/ê- -as
Sub. - ês-/ês- -ar/ês- -at/ês- -as
Ill. - êt-/êt- -ar/êt- -at/êt- -as
Ine. - -alyél/-alyér/-alyét/-alyés
Ela. - êl-/êl- -ar/êl- -at/êl- -as
Per. - ât-/ât- -ar/ât- -at/ât- -as
Pro. - ât- -anis/ât- -aris/ât- -atis/êl- -as
Cnt. - ît-/ît- -ar/ît- -at/ît- -as
Con. - ûs-/ûs- -ar/ûs- -at/ûs- -as
Inc. - ôt-/ôt- -ar/ôt- -at/ôt- -as
Abi. - ôs-/ôs- -ar/ôs- -at/ôs- -as
Ben. - -assan/-assar/-asset/-is
Sem. - -ava/-avar/-avan/-avier
Tem. - -allon/-allor/-allont/-allos
Cau. - -enna/-alivar/-alint/-alivas
Voc. - ût-/ût- -ar/îs- -ant/îs- -as


Verb

All verbs should end in the -en postfix.

Agent

1S: ê-
2S: â-
3S: û-
3S.INAN: âi-
1P/D: ô-
2P/D: î-
3P/D: êi-
IMPRS.SG: ôi-
IMPRS.DU/PL: ûi-
4: îo-


Patient

1S: -(a)m
2S: -(a)s
3S: -(a)lë
3S.INAN: -(a)n
1P/D: -(a)lyë
2P/D: -(a)t
3P/D: -(a)r
4: -(ei)ti

Tense and mood

Conditional: -ám
Present: -ein
Progressive: -a
Past: -os
Future:
Imperfect: -i
Habitual: -ól
Passive habitual:
Passive imperfect: -ir
Passive present: -er
Passive progressive: -an
Passive past: t- -us
Passive future: t- -ena
Future progressive: s- -o
Passive future progressive: t- -o
Perfect: s- -as
Imperative: -ië
Admonitive: -ia
Prohibitive: -iú
Gerund: s(a)- -ein
Present participle: r- -is
Past participle: r- -os
Passive present participle: s- -us
Passive past participle: t- -an
Interrogative illocution: w(a)-


Numbers

áe – minus, e.g. télsanë áe - -15.
pó - dot, e.g. síli pó hyétélsákatésí - 2.572.
-to(n) – fraction, e.g. þélyé viloton OR þetolor - 3/4.
télcá nítosísea (or even tosísea) - 7 1/2.
tei / -tei - 0
íha / ní- -ha - 1
síli / se- -sí - 2
þélyé / þe- -lyé - 3
vilo / vi- -lor - 4
hyélë / hyé- -he - 5
hlúni / hlú- -ne - 6
télcá / té- -lá - 7
þlú / þlé- -lú - 8
nesta / ne- -ta - 9
télsa - 10
télsáka - 100
télsála - 1 000
túlna - 10 000
ténésa - 100 000
tetyá - 1 000 000

E.g.:
nísíli / télsasí - 12;
sevilo / setélsalor - 24;
þehyélë / þetélsahe - 35;
hlúþélyé / hlútélsalyé - 63;
sílitei / vitélsa - 20;
þlútélsáka - 800;
þlútélsákaté - 870;
þlútélsákalá - 807;
þlútélsákatétélca / þlútélsákatélá - 877;
hyétélsála þlútélsákatétélca - 5 877.